Last week I had a discussion with a colleague (and talented ruby developer) about the decision to remove dynamic finders from ActiveRecord. This is old news and I’m sure has been hashed to death, but I figured I’d chime in with a few thoughts, now that Rails 4.0 is out and we’re moving towards 4.1.

Not long ago, the dynamic finders code was moved into its own gem. This is in sync with the component philosophy that started around Rails 3. It is currently a dependency of ActiveRecord - If you want AR, you still get your finders. Coming up in 4.1 however, you’ll have to add it to your Gemfile. Here’s the commit.

This will hold us over til Rails 5, when the deprecated finders gem will no longer be supported - from the second sentence of its README.

It will be removed as a dependency in Rails 4.1, but users can manually include it in their Gemfile and it will continue to be maintained until Rails 5.

I had a hard time finding historical discourse over dynamic finders and their eventual consignment to death row. Most references I found were about the fact that they were going away and discussions about how to arrange Arel syntax to match dynamic finder behavior. I did find one nugget, which I’ll get into below.

The good

Dyamic finders were born out of necessity. Rails was designed to change web development from a slow, pain-ridden process into something fun and productive again. Dynamic finders fit into this by giving us a familiar vocabulary when working with a database.

  > Post.find_by_subject("What is your favorite color?")
  Select *
    From posts
    Where subject = 'What is your favorite color?';

Compared to raw SQL, dynamic finders give us a dense, readable syntax. With this in mind, I’m delighted that Rails has provided these finders.

The bad

Despite it’s advantages, one can rapidly hit a wall when querying multiple fields.

  > Person.find_by_name_and_title_and_quest("Arthur", "King of the Britons", "Holy Grail")

Or …

  > Post.find_by_parent_id_and_orinal_and_is_active(10, 1, true)

Given enough facets and long enough field names, dynamic finders rapidly lose their readability. They are also limited - one cannot easily query on the negation of a boolean or query using the SQL “LIKE” clause.

The ugly

Under the hood, damning evidence can be seen in the ActiveRecord source code. Dynamic finders are implemented via method_missing. While flexible, method_missing isn’t terribly performance friendly. Having never looked into this before, I was a bit surprised to see this.

I previously thought ActiveRecord evaluated the table structure at load-time and generated various finder methods based on fields from the table. In retrospect, I see that would’ve been a horrible option considering the number of permutations in a table with many fields.

They aren’t really gone

Consider this from the deprecated finders gem README:

Note that find(primary_key), find_by…, and find_by…! are not deprecated.

So find and find_by are not going away… that helps considerably - here’s what DHH had to say on the matter:

…the new dynamic finders are just as good as before: Product.find_by title: “iPad Mini” is just as well as: Product.find_by_title “iPad Mini”.

This is pretty much what got me on board. This isn’t so bad:

  > Post.find_by :subject => "What is your favorite color?"

I am still quite accustomed to the the old hash syntax, but I admit it is clumsy compared to the new hash syntax in this case:

  > Post.find_by subject: "What is your favorite color?"

I can definitely live with this. The only counter-argument I can see is dynamic finder methods use snake_case… just like most other variables and methods in Ruby. I am quite, quite, used to snake_case - the find_by method brakes the snake case flow as I type. This is just a nit and something easily overcome using snippets in my editor.

So where does that leave us? I think find_by will be a sufficient replacement for dynamic finders. Syntactically, it is quite similar and should yield much better performance.

The one part of dynamic finders I will truly miss is find_by_id. I frequently use this in edit and destroy actions to better handle the case where an invalid id is provided. find_by_id returns a nil, rather than raising an exception. I may end up creating some sort of mixin like this:

  module IdFinder
    extend ActiveSupport::Concern

    module ClassMethods
      def find_by_id(id)
        self.find_by id: id

And just add it to the top of my model classes:

  class Knight
    include IdFinder

     def say_ni!
       ... etc ...

Overall, I’m OK with the fate of dynamic finders. They are useful, but there is a reasonable replacement strategy. It will be interesting to see what happens when Rails 5 rolls around. The deprecated finders gem will be unsupported by then, but that doesn’t mean a maintainer (or a group of maintainers) won’t keep it going. Or maybe not - remember ActionWebService?